EARLY HISTORY OF SOLINA As Told By Pupils Who Won Prizes in Recent Essay Contest.


Announcement was made in The Canadian Statesman three weeks ago of the prize winners in the essay contest on the subject, "Early History of Solina" conducted by Prof. J.B. Reynolds, President of Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, a Solina Old Boy. The 8 prizes amounting to $25, donated by Prof. Reynolds and supplemented by two prizes by his brother Mr. A.J. Reynolds of Solina, were presented to the students at Eldad Anniversary held on May 28th.

Starting with this issue one of the essays will appear each week. The first prize essay which follows was written by Master Arnot VanNest, son of Mr. And Mrs. Wm. Van Nest:



The first school in Solina was an old frame structure and it stood on the corner where Mr. A.J. Reynolds' house is built.

Among the first teachers who taught in the old school were Mr. T.H. Sweetman, Mr. Daniel Lick, Mr. John Hughes, Sr. Mr. John Hughes, Sr., was the last teacher that taught in the old school-house. A new school-house was built in the year 1853 and as Mr. Hughes was the last teacher in the old school he was therefore, the first teacher in the new.

This school-house was in use until 1899 and the last and present school-house was built.

The first inspector was a man by the name of Boat; then came Mr. Blair who was a very cranky man, Mr. J.J. Tilley, Mr. W.E. Tilley, and now Major Snider.

Solina was first called Pilchardtown. Mr. John Hughes, Sr., didn't like the name very well and one night he asked a number of young men to meet in the school-house and help him to decide on a new name for the village. He wrote six letters on the blackboard, three consonants and three vowels the consonants were l, n and s, and the vowels were a, i, and o and he told them to make as many words as they could from the six letters.

When the lists were complete each name was written on the blackboard and each man asked to write his choice on a piece of paper, and after the first ballot all the names not voted for were dropped and Solina was the choice.

The teachers after Mr. T.H. Sweetman in the first school-house were Mr. Daniel Lick and Mr. John Hughes, Sr.

The teachers in the second school-house after Mr. Hughes were - Mr. Wm. Beer, Mr. Robert McCullough, Mr. Wm. Bice, Mr. J.C. Groat, Mr. Drimmy, Mr. Stott, Mr. A.J. Reynolds, Mr. T.C. Dodge, Mr. Cyrus Coombs, Mr. W.H. Tonkin, Mr. Everett Brown, Mr. Ralph McLaren, Mr. J.B. McCullough.

Mr. McCullough was the last teacher in the second school-house and also taught for about a half a year in the new building or the one that we have now.

Mr. R.J. McKessock then came to Solina and has taught here for the last twenty-two years and he is still going strong.

Education could be gotten much cheaper in those days than at the present time.

The second school-house was built for $618.00 and teachers were hired for $250.00 to $300.00 and they paid in pounds, shillings and pence. Mr. Anthony Washington once received $18.75 for five cords of hardwood, now you pay $18.00 for one cord.

In Mr. John Hughes' time schools used to visit one another. Generally they had spelling matches and Solina pretty nearly always won.

There were three events to which the children always looked forward to with a good amount of pleasure. The first event was the public examinations and the children's parents, friends, and maybe some teachers from other sections would be there. The classes would stand up in the front of the school and spell and give the meaning of words given to them. Our forefathers claim that they got better understanding of the meanings of words than some of the pupils get nowadays.

The second event was the cake contest. The teacher would furnish groceries for a four or five story cake. They used to place the cake on a stand in front of the school and then two girls were nominated and placed one on each side of the cake then the two young men who nominated the girls would go around and get votes at ten cents a vote. The votes that each young man got would go to the girl that each nominated and the girl that got the most votes won the cake. The money that had been collected was given to the teacher and he, after taking enough out to pay for the groceries in the cake, would buy prizes to give the pupils according to merit.

The last and greatest event of all to the children was Prof. Kent's visit to the school. He would always have electric batteries with him and would give the children shocks and he would do all sorts of stunts with electricity. He would connect a piece of wire to a battery. On one end of this wire he would have a mouthpiece and on the other end a receiver. He would tell some of the pupils to go outside with one end of the wire and he could make them understand what he was saying to them from the inside of the school.

Prof. Kent was really the man who invented the telephone.

I think I can truthfully say that there isn't another school in Durham County which has helped to educate so many professional 'men'.

Here are a few of them: Prof. J.B. Reynolds, President of Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Professor Norman Reynolds, Mrs. Chas. Bice, Lawyer, Dr. James L. Hughes, The late Hon. Sir Sam Hughes, Mr. Geo. Hogarth, B.A., Dr. Lammiman, Dr. Pascoe, The late Joseph Ruse, Prof. Of Music, Rev. Philip Allin, Rev. Wm. Montgomery, Rev. Chas. Reynolds, Mr. Sam Allin, Druggist, Mr. Percy Westlake, Druggist, Mr. Walter Wilbur, Dentist, Mr. A.J. Reynolds, Teacher, Mr. J.B. Hogarth, Teacher, Mr. Wm. Bice, Teacher, Dr. Mark Bice, Mr. Chas. Ruse, Prof. Of Music, Prof. George Bice, Mr. Luther Hogarth, Dentist, Col. John Hughes, Jr., Dr. Nelson Washington, Rev. George Washington, Jr., Levi Washington.

As time passes on more professionals will be coming from the same old school.




Second prize essay written by Miss Audrey Shortridge, granddaughter of Mrs. S. Shortridge, Solina.


The information that I received on this subject has been told me by Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Baker, Mrs. J.T. Rundle, Mr. Thomas Shortridge and Mrs. Frank Hockaday.

Mr. and Mrs. Law were the first persons known to have kept store in Solina. They kept their store on the south-east corner of the village on the property now occupied by Mr. B.G. Stevens.

Mr. Parmenas Allen was the next person to keep store. He started on the property now occupied by Mr. Elmer Wilbur but was only there for short time, moving to the property now occupied by Mr. Frank Hockaday. While keeping store there Mary Colwill (Mrs. Frank Hockaday now) was a clerk in his store. After keeping store there for a while he moved to the south-east corner of the village on the property now occupied by Mr. B.G. Stevens. After Mr. Allen came James C. Groat. After Mr. Groat the business passed into the possession of Mr. Samuel Trewin who employed Mr. Robert Kirkpatrick to help him. Mr. Batten came after Kirkpatrick he ran a store and tailor-shop combined. Mr. Batten was followed by Messrs. W.D. Lamb, Andrew Noden, Daniel Trainer, S.B. Brown and B.G. Stevens. Mr. B.G. Stevens still occupies the property but does not keep a store.

The first regular post office to be kept in Solina was by Mr. Parmenas Allen. But before that the mail was brought up from Hampton by a Mr. Bishop who put it into a box in Mr. Law's store and the people came and helped themselves. After Mr. Allen came James C. Groat. Following these two men the post office was kept by Mr. Henry Hooper who lived on the south-west corner of the village. Mr. Hooper kept the post office for a number of years, but it was later moved to the south-east corner where it was kept until about 1916 when it was removed and the people received their mail from Hampton by the Rural Mail Delivery.

Mr. Samuel Cole was the first blacksmith to operate in Solina. He kept his shop on the north-east corner of the village. Following Mr. Cole came John Beer, after him came Mr. Mounce. Mr. Mounce sold his shop to Mr. Johnathan Pickard. After Mr. Pickard came Frank Awde, them Mr. William Tom. His first shop was on the north-east corner of the village for a short time. He then moved it to the property now occupied by Mr. Albert Balson, where he worked for a number of years. Mr. Tom sold his business to Mr. Woods who sold it to Mr. Fank Cyderman. For a short time there were two blacksmiths in Solina. One being kept by Mr. Frayne.

The first carpenter shop to be kept in Solina was by Mr. Simon Lee assisted by his son, Daniel. In those days they were called wheelrights. They made wagons, sleighs, furniture, coffins and many other such like articles. After Simon Lee the shop was run by Mr. William Colwill. Mr. Tom kept a man to do the carpenter work for him, Mr. William Carroll, and for a short time Mr. Charlie Hill.

Mr. Robert Libby, called Blinky, conducted a general jobbing shop in Solina for a number of years. He had a turning lathe and plane. He also made barrels, rolling-pins, potato mashers and such like. Mr. John Ruse done a great deal of carpenter work and general contracting. He had some men to help him. Their names were Messrs. John Giles, William Trimble, Richard Worth, John Westaway and Albert Wright. They built most of the houses for miles around. They also built Eldad Church.

The first mason to work from Solina was Mr. Denny White. He was succeeded by his sons Daniel and William. They built a great many stone houses, especially on the seventh concession of Darlington. After the White's came Mr. Walter Vice and sons John, Walter, George and James. Many barn foundations were laid by these men.

The first shoe-maker to work in Solina was William Martin, who lived in the house now occupied by Mr. J.T. Rundle, Mr. Joseph Ward, who died in Hampton recently, helped him for a number years. Mr. Olford had a shop in the house now occupied by Mr. John Pascoe. Thomas Hicks helped him for a number of years. Following these men Henry Hooper kept a shop on the south-west corner of the village for a number of years.

A tailor-shop was first kept a Mr. John Cowle. He often times had several employees to help him.

Mr. Robert Stevens was the first person to make dresses in Solina. After her came Miss Bella Cowle and Miss Jane Ann Jennings.

Miss Mary Webster kept a sewing school. In the mornings they did their sewing, in the afternoon they had reading, spelling and arithmetic. In the evenings they finished up the sewing that they had left from the morning. Miss Mary Webster was the only person known to have kept a sewing school in Solina.

Dr. Bingham was the only doctor to live in Solina. He lived in the house now occupied by Mr. Samuel Bush.

Mr. Tyler was the first man to run a saw-mill in Solina. He sold it to Mr. E. Bice and family. They are the only ones known to have run a saw-mill in Solina. The saw-mill was kept on the farm now owned by Mr. N.E. Wright.

Mr. George Bice was a music teacher. He was also an agent for musical instruments and organs.

A Mr. McHoul who lived in the house now occupied by Mrs. Levi Arnott was a pedlar of tinware, patent medicines and a buyer of wool, etc.

The first photographer was a Mr. E. Green. After him came Mr. Edward Groat. He went around and took pictures and then painted them.

Mr. Biette, a Frenchman, ran a cooperage for a number of years on the hill just west of Solina and was the only man to run a business of that kind.

The first newspaper in Solina was edited by Mr. John Hughes, Sr., in connection with the Royal Templars, then by Margaret Hogarth (Mrs. Thomas Pascoe now), then by Mary Bradley. The paper was called the Solina Luminary.

There was also a literary school in which the children learned to sing. They had all sorts of entertainments in the school.

Mr. Thomas Baker wishes me to say that all these men that were engaged in the industries that I have mentioned above were a fine type of men. He also said that it was regrettable that there were none of these industries in Solina to-day.



Third prize essay written by Miss Ruth McKessock, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. R.J. McKessock, Solina.


Some years before the organization of the Solina Sons of Temperance No. 40, there was a lodge of Good Templars which met in the church each week.

Later a division known as Darlington Centre No. 288 was organized meeting in Baker's School, one and one-quarter miles north of Solina but becoming dormant January 28, 1878.

On February 21, 1879, Solina Division No. 40, Sons of Temperance was organized by Mr. H. O'Hara, Deputy Grand Worthy Patriarch, assisted by Mr. T. Yellowlees and Mr. R. Windatt and other Bowmanville friends with the following charter members: Messrs. S. J. Williams, J.C. Groat, A.J. Reynolds, John Reynolds, Eli Pascoe, George Vice, John Ferguson, John Elson, John Orchard, A. Abrahams, J.W. Werry, John VanNest and George H. Joll.

The first evening the following officers were duly installed, Worthy Patriarch S.J. Williams, Worthy Associate Mrs. J.C. Groat, Recording Scribe A.J. Reynolds, Associate Recording Scribe Sis. E.J. Pascoe, Financial Scribe J.C. Groat, Treasurer Sis. Maggie Lamminan, Past Worthy Patriarch Thos. Baker, Chaplain, Isaiah Barclay, Inside Sentinel George H. Joll, Conductor, Sis. Jane Joll, Outside Sentinel, William Colwill.

At the first meeting the following committees were appointed - Visiting Committee, S.J. Williams, Mrs. J.C. Groat, Isaiah Barclay, Sis. Margie Lamminan and Thos. Baker, Financial Committee, Eli Pascoe, J.C. Groat, B. Lamminan, Thos. Baker and J.W. Werry. Room Committee, Eli Pascoe, J.C. Groat and Sis. M.A. Washington. Entertainment Committee, A.J. Reynolds, J.C. Groat and William Collwill.

The following were initiated the second night, Wm. VanNest, Abbie VanNest, H. Hooper and B. Lamminan.

We note the following people who were once members of Solina Division and have now passed away. Rev. Philip Allin, John Allin, Samuel Allin, Mark Bice, James Bice, William Bice, Prof. Joe Ruse, John Beer, T.C. Doidge, Cyrus Coombe, Jane Joll, George Joll, Edwin Annice, Abbie VanNest, John VanNest, Eli Pascoe, Thomas Pascoe, Lorne Pascoe, Dr. B. Lamminan, S.J. Williams, Mrs. J.C. Groat, J.C. Groat, Isaiah Barclay, Wm. Reynolds, J.W. Werry, Bertha Hogarth, Samuel Shortridge, Mrs. Henry Argue, Mrs. George Argue, George Argue, Lila Branton, Jabez Hogarth, Dr. Norman Heatlie and Jack Crago.

There are many others who have passed away as well as many who have moved to other parts of the country. Many interesting debates were held and many subjects discussed such as "Resolved that bachelors and old maids are a nuisance to society". "Resolved that the works of nature excite more admiration than the works of art". "Resolved that King John is meaner than King Charles". "Resolved that a cow is more profitable than a sheep". "Resolved that married life is preferable to single life". "Resolved that a dirty good natured wife is more to be desired than a clean cranky one", and many others.

Oftentimes for a program they had speeches and some of the questions asked were, "Who has been the greatest philanthropist?" "Do women marry for love?" "Which is the stronger passion in man, love of women or love of money"? "Is marriage a failure?" "How would the automatic roller shades warranted not to rip, rave or tear and gold medalled in seven countries do for the hall windows?" "Which could be most easily dispensed with salt or sugar?" "What is the difference between a glass of water and a glass of beer?" "Which is the worst a gossiping wife or a drunken husband?" "How about a moonlight excursion to the lake"?

Spelling matches were very popular in the old division and many good spellers were found amongst the members.

The division of those days also boasted a choir and a glee club which were a great help to the community.

When the division was first organized the meetings were held in the church and in the fall of 1880 the first plans were made for the building of the Sons of Temperance Hall.

The land the hall was built on was given the division by the late Mr. S.J. Williams on the condition that if the hall was destroyed by fire and not rebuilt within a certain length of time the land was to go back to the original owner.

When the men started canvassing for funds for the erection of the hall, it was found that some people would not give anything unless it was going to be a public hall because in case of it belonging to the division if the division became defunct the hall and property would become the possession of the grand division and could be taken by them and sold, so the hall was built as a public one and three trustees were elected Mr. S.J. Williams, Mr. Thos. Baker and Mr. Thos Pascoe.

When Mr. Thos. Baker and Mr. A.J. Reynolds were out soliciting funds for the hall, some of the people who did not have money to give gave anything from butter and eggs to dried apples. These things were then sold and the money from them used for the hall, also the money made from the first of July celebration.

The contract for the building of the hall without the foundation was taken by Mr. J.H. Allin for the sum of three hundred dollars and the hall was completed in the spring of 1881.

On the first of July, 1881, the hall was officially opened. In the afternoon a game of football took place between Leskard Division and Solina which resulted in a tie.

After the game a huge supper was served in the shed under the hall to over one thousand people. The horses were tied in the school yard and Mr. Thos. Baker brought a load of hay to the yard and distributed it around so the horses would have something to eat.

In the evening, addresses were made by Dr. James. L. Hughes of Toronto, an old Solina boy and a member of the Good Templars while here, also by the late Dr. J.W. McLaughlin and the late Mr. F.S. Spence of Toronto. The music was furnished by Mr. J. D. Keachie then of Bowmanville and now of Toronto, and also by the local talent. There were so many people present in the evening that the hall would not hold them so an overflow meeting was held in the schoolhouse and each speaker spoke in both places.

Hampton Brass Band led by Prof. George Bice was asked to come to Solina for the opening of the hall and wanted five dollars for expenses. Solina thought it was too much and offered them free tickets to the tea and concert if they would come.

Sometimes when the division was not going very well they would choose sides among the members for a contest for the quarter. From October to December 1890, a contest was conducted with Messrs. W.H. Montgomery and M.W. Pascoe as captains. The last night of the contest fifty nine-people were initiated and during the quarter one hundred and eighty-four were initiated.

Anyone joining the division had to take a pledge promising to abstain from the use of all alcoholic drinks. Sometimes people would send in charges that certain members had been seen either drinking or else treating someone else, then a committee was appointed to investigate the charge and report as to whether the member should be expelled or retained.

Solina used to hold a rally every year and on October 20, 1911, their rally for that year was held. The hall was crowded and a good program was furnished consisting of duets, quartets and instrumentals, besides addresses by twenty-one past worthy patriarchs and Rev. C.W. Barrett. After the program lunch was served consisting of pumpkin pie and other rural delights.

Many good times were had in the old division and once a year a soiree was held in the woods near the village. In the afternoon, temperance addresses were given and music by the band. One year a band was brought all the way from Orangeville to furnish the music. After the program, supper was served at twenty-five cents a person, to hundreds of people.

Once a year the minister at Eldad used to preach a temperance sermon and the members of the division wearing regalia's marched in a body to the church.

There was felt to be a need of temperance training for the children too young to enter the division so the Loyal Crusaders, and afterwards the Cadets of Temperance, was organized in 1893 under the direction of Miss Nancy Williams now Mrs. Alvin Peter, Hampton, for the children between the ages of eight and fourteen.

Among those who have gone out from Solina Division to follow their professions we note the following: Mr. Charles Bice, a lawyer in Denver, Colorado; Mr. T.C. Washington, a Real Estate dealer in Toronto; Mr. Charles Ruse, Professor of Music; Mr. Levi Washington, an Undertaker; Dr. Walter Wilbur, a Dentist; Prof. J.B. Reynolds, President of the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph; Rev. C.W. Reynolds, Pastor of Clinton Street Methodist Church, Toronto; Geo. H. Hogarth, B.A. Mathematical Master of Regina Collegiate Institute; Dr. L.N. Hogarth, a Dentist in Detroit; Dr. Mark W. Pascoe of Taft, California; Dr. Fred Heatlie, a Dentist in Indiana; Mr. R. Luther Werry, now on the staff of the Montreal Herald; Miss Honora Werry, a teacher in the St. Catharines Business College; Mr. Frank Shortridge, a Real Estate dealer in Winnipeg and Rev. W.H. Montgomery of Chippewa.

Many of our parents owe much of their business training and character building to the old division which started the fight against the barrooms and which helped to bring about local option in Darlington and other places.


Fourth prize essay written by Marguerite Wright, daughter of Mr. And Mrs. Norman E. Wright, Solina.

In the village of Solina some fifty or sixty years ago there was more doing there than now.

Mr. Hicks and Mr. Alford worked together making boots and shoes. They used to go out and take orders. They worked where Mr. John Pascoe now lives. At the same time Mr. Martin made and mended shoes across from where Mr. Charles Blanchard now lives.

A little later Mr. Jennings made and mended shoes where Mr. Elmer Wilbur now lives. Later Mr. Hooper moved from the Pascoe farm and built a little building in the lot Mr. Frank Hockaday now owns. He carried on a very successful business.

In the front part of the building Mr. Albert Balson now uses for a barn Mr. Beer first had a blacksmith shop. Later Mr. Toms took the business. The last one that had the business was Frank Cryderman. In the rear part of the building now used for a barn Mr. Lee made wagons, buggies, cabinets and coffins. He would go to the house and measure the corpse and make the coffin to order and cover it with black cloth. The people in those days could not afford to go to town to an expensive undertaker.

Behind the blacksmith and wagon shop Mr. William Carrol built a building to do his carpentering in. He used to get tin cans and tie them to dogs’ tails. Mr. Trimble, a carpenter, made pumps. He lived where Mr. R. J. McKessock now lives. On Halloween nights the young folks used to take out the pump handle and burn it. Kit Mitchell was also a carpenter. The folks in those days used to do more silly things than they do now. The young men of the church had been coming in late and they were very noisy, the minister thought he would see if he could not stop it so he said, “If the young men had to be late they were to come in quietly”. The next Sunday morning Kit Mitchell came in late with high rubber boots on, a leather boot under each arm and marched up to the very front seat of the church and sat down.

Masoning was carried on first by Mr. White and his son who lived at Reynolds’. Later Mr. Walter Vice carried on masoning where Mr. Sam Bush now lives.

There was a saw mill down in the flats now owned by Mr. N. E. Wright. The saw-mill was run by Bice’s. One of the family writes for the Statesman. Mr. Bice lived where Mr. H. G. Argue now lives and gave music lessons.

Barrels were made by Mr. Libby. His house is now used for a barn by Mr. Frank Hockaday. It was moved there from the south east corner of B. G. Stevens’ lot, where Mr. Libby worked.

Tailoring was carried on by Mr. William Cowle. He worked in the house now owned by Mr. Frank Hockaday. He employed two sons and two young ladies. They carried on a very successful business.

Mr. Stephen Cole had a butcher shop where Mrs. Sam Shortridge now lives.

There was a newspaper written called Royal Templers. In those days there was no printing done. The news was all written by hand.

There was a store where Mr. B. G. Stevens now lives. It was kept by Mr. And Mrs. Law, Miss Allin and Mr. Baton, Mr. Trainer, Mr. Brown and last of all Mr. Stevens. Later the post office was kept as well as the store.

Farming, a very important industry was carried on by some of the dear old pioneers who cleared the land and helped get it in the shape it is in now. Some of the men were: Joseph Reynolds, William Werry, Eli Pascoe, Washington family, Saul and Paul Williams, William Baker. Mr. Joseph Reynolds was the best local preacher they ever had at Eldad.

Mrs. Geach taught kindergarten work in a little house below the church. Later Miss Webster gave lessons on ciphering along with music lessons.

The last and most important of all is the educational industry which was carried on by some of the dear old teachers that have either passed out or moved away, some of which have done neither one. The teachers were—Mr. John Hughes, Mr. A. J. Reynolds, Mr. Cyrus Coombe, Mr. Dodge, Mr. Brown, Mr. Groat, father of Frank Groat of Hampton, Mr. McLaren, Mr. McCullough, and last and best of all to the younger generation is Mr. R. J. McKessock who has taught here for over twenty years.

The dear old church of Eldad is still standing where some of the old people were attending.

These are a few of the reminiscences of the pioneer days.




Fifth Prize Awarded to Nora Kerslake


A slight mistake of the publication of the essays caused us to change the credit of the second and third winners. The names should be in this order:

1st prize - Arnot VanNest.

2nd prize - Ruth McKessock.

3rd prize - Audrey Shortridge.

4th prize - Marguerite Wright.

5th prize - Nora Kerslake

We publish the last named this week. The writer being a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. C.J. Kerslake, Hampton.


In 1829 there was only one house in Darlington, north of the Kingston road. About all the township north of Bowmanville was thick forest and inhabited only by Indians.

About 1845 Solina was named New Cornwall, probably because many of the settlers were from Cornwall in England.

In 1852 a log school-house stood on the corner where Mr. A.J. Reynolds' house is.

The first building west of this school was the home of Mr. Daniel White, a brick-layer and plasterer.

Mr. Simon Lee, a waggon and cabinet maker, lived in the house now owned by Mr. A.J. Balson with his wife and four children - Ascot, Daniel, Lucretia, and Mary Ann. His shop was west of his home. Many of the earlier settlers had furniture made by him, and much of it is good and highly prized by those who now have it in their homes. He once painted a fish on a waggon and that is where Mr. Kit Mitchell got the name of Pilchardtown. The place was known by that name until a Post Office was organized and it was named Solina. Mr. Lee used to tie tin cans to dogs' tails.

West of Mr. Lee lived Mr. John Westaway and family. Mr. Jennings, a shoemaker, lived in the next house with his wife and two sons and two daughters. In the house now occupied by Mr. R.J. McKessock lived Mr. William Trimble with his wife and two daughters, Maggie and Ida. It was a sad blow to this family when Mr. Trimble and Maggie were fatally poisoned by drinking sage tea which contained nightshade that had been gathered in mistake with the sage. Ida was poisoned also, but she recovered, and she and her mother lived in Solina for many years.

Next west where Mrs. John Reynolds now lives was Mr. William White with his wife and family of two daughters - Grace and Mary Emma. Mr. White and his brother Daniel built most of the stone houses in the neighborhood, Mr. John Ruse being a carpenter did the frame work and house finishing. In those days doors, door frames, window frames and so on, all had to be made by hand, as there sere no sash and door factories as there are now, so building a house meant much expert work and made it necessary to have many workmen. Those who were apprentices, and journeymen carpenters with Mr. Ruse were: Messrs. John Giles, Albert Wright, Jim Ford, David Millson, John Westaway, William Trimble, Joseph Andrews, William Andrews, Richard Wroth, John Ruse, Jr., and others.

Mr. and Mrs. Horsley lived in the next house on the hill and across the road from the Advent Church. This place was afterwards occupied by Sim Tyler and his mother.

Next farm west of the corner on which stands Eldad Church was owned by Mr. L. Chadsey about 1832, afterwards becoming the home of Mr. Peter Werry, and like many other farms has been in the same family for many years. It is now owned by Mr. S.E. Werry, a son of Mr. William Werry, and grandson of Mr. Peter Werry.

On the next farm west where Mr. Thomas Baker now lives, was at one time a Mr. Joseph Shell. Afterwards a Mr. Perry who became well-known later (to the sorrow of many) by the land boom in Hampton. Mr. Perry bought a number of acres in the north part of Hampton and divided it into village lots selling them at very high prices as he was proposing to start a large mill or factory there. The foundation for this mill was commenced, but before the building was far on its way to completion, Mr. Perry had departed and the mill never was built. Mr. Baker, father of Mr. Thomas Baker, lived here for many years, so this is another farm which has long been in the same name.

Mr. John VanNest came on the next farm lot 29, con. 6 where Mr. William VanNest now lives, about 1837.

Mr. William Bain lived on lots 31 and 32, concession 6, where Mr. John Naylor lives. He came about 1834. Some years later he and some friends started on a trip to England, and the steamer struck an iceberg and all three were drowned.

Mr. Bartholomew Mitchell came in 1834 to the farm now owned by Mr. Walter Vice and formerly by Charles Rogers then by Mr. James Jebson. Mr. Mitchell's was the first stone house in Darlington. He was the first man to drive a buggy and waggon on the Scugog road. He also brought the first reaping machine ever used in Darlington from the United States. He died in 1867.

Mr. Ethod Card lived on the farm on which Mr. James Leask and his son William Leask are now living.

Mr. William Lander was an early settler on the town line of Whitby concession 5. His son, Mr. James Lander afterwards owned the place. The present owner is Mr. S.A. Northcott whose wife is a daughter of Mr. John Lander.

Mr. Thomas Yeo came to what was called the Saxon Settlement about 1843. He was township tax collector for many years and died in Hampton at the age of 91. Mr. Russell Robbins a great-great-grandson of Mr. Yeo owns the farm on which Mr. Yeo lived. Dr. J.H. Elliott of Toronto, is a grandson of Mr. Yeo.

Mr. John Coleman, Sr., and his son William, and daughter Jane (afterwards Mrs. Stephen Washington) came in 1883 and purchased most of lots 31 and 32, concession 5, now owned by Messrs. W.N. Pascoe and A.T. Langmaid.

Mr. Edward Pascoe came to a little shanty near the place that is now owned by Mr. A.T. Stainton. Then he moved into another little house farther up the side road which is now closed up. From there he moved to the Pascoe homestead, and cleared it himself. This is now owned by Mr. C.H. Scott whose wife was a grand-daughter of Mr. Pascoe's. Many of the Pascoe descendants are still in the community and are good citizens.

Mr. George Byers lived on lot 28, concession 5, which is now owned by Mr. John Baker, a son of Mr. Thomas Baker.

In 1834 a Mr. Washington with his sons Anthony and Stephen came to Darlington and settled on the 200 acres of lot 27, concession 5. They bought this for about $400. The only road that was cleared at that time was from the town line of Whitby, now Taunton to what is now called Mitchell's corners. This piece of road is part of the present 5th concession line.

Mr. Anthony Washington lived on the north half of lot 27. He was a magistrate, a leading politician and a good preacher. His son George was a fine scholar. For a time he was professor in the Victoria College, Toronto , and afterwards a preacher. Messrs. Anthony, Stephen and John Washington with their father went to Toronto in 1837 to help put down the rebellion.

Mr. Thomas Pascoe (son of Edward Pascoe), owned and occupied the Anthony Washington farm for a number of years. His son Lewis, afterwards became owner and lived there until Mr. Isaac Hardy bought it about a year ago. Mr. Thomas Pascoe died in Hampton in 1921. Mrs. Pascoe is still living there, and most of their large family are residents of the Solina community. Mr. R.J. McKessock who has successfully taught Solina School for about 30 years is a son-in-law of Mr. Pascoe.

Mr. Stephen Washington lived on the south half of lot 27. He and his brothers John and George were local preachers. Rev. W.C. Washington, now of Bowmanville, and Mr. Thomas Washington a prominent business man of Toronto, are sons of Mr. Stephen Washington. This farm was owned by the Washington family until a few years ago. The present owner is Mr. S.G. Chant.

On the farm, lot 26, concession 5, east of Eldad Church, and on the south side of the road, once lived Mr. Peter Elford, later Mr. Giles, later still Mr. Joseph Reynolds, who was one of the many men from Cornwall and Devonshire, who qualified for a preacher. This man was very popular with the young people. He always had a smile and a kind word for them. His descendants are highly respected. His sons, John and Arthur now live in Solina, Edwin lives in Bowmanville, Samuel is in Windsor, Rev. S.W. is in Toronto and Prof. J.B. is President of Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph. This farm now belongs to Mr. A.L. Pascoe, son of Mr. Thomas Pascoe.

East of this farm and about 60 rods south of the road was the home of Mr. Elijah Bice, who came from U.S.A., whose family comprised: William, James, Mark, George and Charles. William was a teacher, Mark a doctor, George a musician, Charles a leading lawyer and a clever writer lives in Denver, Colorado. He often writes articles for "The Canadian Statesman". James was a farmer.

Next east of the Bice home, Mr. Henry Cole lived on the farm which afterwards became the home of Mr. George Washington, brother of Messrs. Anthony and Stephen Washington of lot 27. Mr. Washington's children were: Lizzie, Martha, Nelson, Caroline, Alvin and Mary Ann. Nelson Washington became an M.D., Caroline married Mr. J.C. Groat, who taught school in Solina, and afterwards kept store there. This farm was afterwards the home of Mr. John VanNest, Jr., a son of Mr. John VanNest, Sr., of lot 29, and was bought later by Mr. Charles Werry, a son of Mr. William Werry. The present owner and occupant is Mr. N.E. Wright, whose wife is eldest daughter of the late Mr. John VanNest, Jr.

Next east where Mr. Henry Argue has recently lived was Mr. Simon Elson, father of Mr. John Elson. On the corner lived Robert Libby. He made chisel-handles. His son, Mr. John Libby, lived in Hampton for many years.

Mr. and Mrs. Law kept store at the south east corner, later Mr. Allin, them Mr. J.C. Groat and many others. The last one to keep store there being Mr. B.G. Stevens, who still lives there, but has remodeled the building and made a neat, modern house.

The farm directly south was once the Linton farm, and Mr. John Ruse at one time was a tenant there. Before leaving Solina the Ruse family had increased to 13, and when Mr. Ruse died in Hampton at the age of 91 all the family were living excepting the eldest son, John, who died in U.S.A. Most of the family were musical. Mr. Sydney Hockaday now lives there.

South of this farm was Mr. John Hogarth who moved to St. Mary's before 1860. Christopher or Kit Mitchell was Mrs. Hogarth's brother, and lived with them. He was builder of mills and barns. He was also a leader in the temperance work, and on account of his being a very odd man was well known.

In an old frame shack about where Mr. Richard Pascoe's house stands was a family by the name of Hawkey.

Next south was Mr. Daniel Hogarth, and his estimable family of 14.

Farther south was Mr. Stephen Hogarth, brother of Mr. Daniel Hogarth. His house was on the 5th concession line. Many of the descendants of Messrs. Daniel and Stephen Hogarth are still living in the community. Mr. James Hogarth now lives on the farm, which was the homestead of his grandfather, Daniel Hogarth.

Mr. John Coleman, Jr., lived on lot 25, concession 5, across the road from Mr. Hogarth, afterwards owned by Mr. Geo. Awde, then by Mr. Charles Langmaid. The present owner Mr. Roy Langmaid, is a son of Mr. Charles Langmaid.

Mr. John Ruse, a carpenter, came in 1852 to a little shack just north of the log school, with his wife and family of six children - John, Maria, Ophelia, Mary, Joseph and William.

Next north lived Mr. John Hughes, who taught Solina school for 5 years. Some of his sons distinguished themselves in Educational and Military Work. Dr. James L., was Principal of the Model School in Toronto for several years, and Chief Inspector of schools for forty years. Sir Sam was a member of the House of Commons for over 30 years, became Minister of Militia and organized the Canadian Army in the Great War. Major John had charge of the Canadian Army work from Port Arthur to the Pacific Ocean in the Great War. Brigadier General William lives in Ottawa and is Superintendent of prisons for all of Canada.

Back of the Hughes' lot lived Mr. John Elson where Mrs. Shortridge lives.

Next north, and at the back of the lot Mr. Stephen Cole lived in an old frame house with a stoop, which we now call a veranda in front. Mr. Cole was the community pig-killer.

Farther north lived Mr. William Lammiman, who was the catcher of the Solina baseball team, made up of the older men in the district. This team could easily defeat any other team in West Durham. Mr. Lammiman's daughters were: Mrs. James Williams, Mrs. A. Hillis, Mrs. S.J. Williams, and Mrs. Thomas Baker. His sons were William and Bart. Bart became a medical doctor.

Across the road and a little farther north lived Mr. Henry Argue, who was one of the Durham Orangemen who went to Toronto in 1837 to help put down the rebellion.

Mr. John Beer had a blacksmith shop on the Solina corner and lived in a house back of the shop.

The next house east of the shop was half way back in the lot, and was occupied by Mr. and Mrs. David Mollison with two sons, Tom and Joe and two daughters. Mr. Mollison was a barn and mill builder or millwright as they were then called. Mrs. Mollison was one of the best singers that ever came to Solina. She was a sister of Mrs. John Ruse.

East of Mollison's was a house near the road occupied by Mr. James Toole, an Irishman. He owned the farm which was then rented by a Mr. Westlake whose daughter Mary became Mrs. Sylvester Cotton, Elizabeth married Mr. George Emmerson, Sarah married Mr. James Bice. Mr. George Kerslake a step-son of Mr. Westlake married Maria Ruse. This farm rented by Mr. Westlake was for many years the home of Mr. and Mrs. S.J. Williams and is now owned by Mr. J.R. Kivell.

Next east where Mr. James Rundle now lives was owned by Mr. William Baker, (uncle of Mr. Thomas Baker) and worked by Mr. Thomas Shortridge, Sr., father of Messrs. Samuel and Thomas Shortridege. At one time a Mr. William Martin carried on shoemaking in this house, and boarded with the Shortridges. He sent to England for a woman whom he afterwards made his wife. He afterwards moved to Hampton where he worked at his shoe-making for many years.

Mr. Joseph Olford lived where Mr. John Pascoe now lives. His family comprised his wife, one son Joe, and one daughter Sarah Ann, and with them lived a clubfooted man, whose first name was Tom. This man was a shoemaker and had a little shop just west of the house.

Next east was a barn near the road and at the east end of the lot a frame house, where Mr. Matthew Cole and his wife lived. Mr. Howard Cole of Hampton, is a great-grandson of Mr. Cole.

On the farm lot 23 adjoining Mr. Cole's lot, lived Mr. John Mason's family. The house was on the side road north. This farm was owned later by Mr. Paul Williams. It is now owned by Mr. Charles Blanchard. Dr. H.C. Phillips of Rochester, and Mr. Frank L. Mason of the Pedlar Shingles Co., Oshawa, are grandsons of Mr. Mason.

On the east side of the road and north was Mr. Woodley, and with him Mr. Tom Beasley, at that time considered a great baritone player, and he played in the Hampton band.

On the south half of lot 22, where Mr. Silas Williams now lives were Mr. and Mrs. James Colton, and family of two sons, Sylvester and Chester and three daughters afterwards - Mrs. William Crawford, Mrs. Josiah Lick and Mrs. John Elford. East of Colton's house was a shanty occupied by a negro.

Next east of Colton farm on lot 21, concession 6, lived Mr. Michael Cryderman, who moved from front of township in 1839. He operated a sawmill on lot 20, concession 5. This mill had been built by a Mr. Burke, and sold to Mr. Luther Price, then came into possession of Mr. Cryderman. He supplied the neighborhood with lumber and exported some to the United States. The first school-house in Darlington centre was built on lot 21 in 1840, an was used as a church by both Methodists and Bible Christians. It was named Mount Pleasant, and dedicated by Rev. D. Wright, who was its first preacher. Rev. J.H. Bynon was the first to preach there for Bible Christians. The first school teacher was Thomas Sloan, a Scotchman. The first Sunday School was opened about 1841 with Mr. Thomas Stripp for a superintendent. The teachers were - Mr. John Lyall, father-in-law of the late Mr. W.F. Allen, Bowmanville, and Mr. John Farley. The first anniversary and tea of this Sunday School was held in the woods where Mr. A.B. Cryderman's house now stands. Mr. Sumpter a store keeper of Bowmanville, brought a treat of candies for all the children. The present owner of this farm is a grandson of Michael Cryderman.

Mr. John Farley was the first settler in the centre of Darlington, and owned 800 acres, which he secured in a trade for a tavern near Port Hope. His sons were Horace and John, and they lived at the corners of 5th concession and Scugog road known as Ashton's corners.

The store at the corner was kept by Mr. Samuel Ashton and his brother John. This building was removed about 20 years ago and Mrs. John Colwill, Jr., daughter of Mr. John Ashton is the only one living of the two families.

West of Ashton's Corners is the creamery or what was first a cheese factory. On this property is a sulphur spring, which at one time might have made a fortune for the owner.

Next west is the Burns farm, for many years the home of Mr. Robert Burns, who died in 1915. Mr. Burns had in his possession some relics of the war of 1812 belonging to Captain Burns.

Lot 21, concession 5, was at one time owned by Mr. James Cryderman, son of Mr. Michael Cyderman, afterwards purchased by Mr. Joseph McClellan and worked by Mr. Morsehead. Then by Mr. George Kerslake who afterwards bought it, and is now in possession of his son Charles J. Kerslake, having been occupied by the Kerslake family for over 60 years.

Next farm west was owned by Mr. Jonathan Porter. Next 25 acres owned by Sim Brown.

Mr. Jonathan Elford owned the next south 50 acres, afterwards by John Elford, who moved to Dakota with his wife. They were both drowned in the great tidal wave that destroyed Galveston, Texas, U.S.A.

South of this lived Mr. William Elford, Sr., father of Mr. William H. Elford of Manitoba, Mr. John Elford, Mr. Byron Elford who went to Chicago, and Eliza, Mrs. Charles Rogers, who died recently in the Canadian West. Mr. W. Elford, Sr., was a much respected gentleman, and after retiring from farm life, moved to Hampton. His son William continued farming for a while, then it was rented to Mr. John B. Russell, and afterwards purchased and occupied by Mr. David Montgomery whose wife was a daughter of Mr. John VanNest of lot 28, concession 6.

The north half of lot 23, concession 5, where Mr. Robert Scott now lives was once owned by Mr. Bishop. The house on the next farm was half way down and owned by Mr. William Baker. Next west is Solina corner again.

Some other early settlers in this part of the township were Messrs. Aaron Thompson, William Lick, Clarke Wilbur, Lyman Gifford, James Heatie, William Annis, John Garfat, William Gilbert, William Souch, William Abrahams, Mr. Broad, John Williams, whose son James claimed to be the first white child born in Darlington.

There was also a family by the name of Lett which lived on the Millson farm about 1836. One of the family being Ben Lett, who was accused of blowing up Brock's Monument at the time of the rebellion. This farm is now owned by Mr. Ed. Millson.

On the line south of Solina were Messrs. Henry, McDougall, Routley, Langmaid, Stainton, Mitchell, Arnot, Cann, Jacks, Perkins, Crumb, Law, Wilcox, Trull.

The early Temperance Lodge had the reputation of having the best public speakers in West Durham. They competed in debates with Bowmanville twice and won the unanimous decision both times. The speakers then were Messrs. John Hughes, William Cryderman, Daniel White and Jim Hughes.

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